Players
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Clive Lloyd

Clive Lloyd Clive Lloyd

A mainstay in the batting line up for 19 years, Clive Lloyd presided over West Indies’ most successful era. Lloyd was captain for 74 of the 110 Tests he played, a higher number than any other West Indies captain and his win percentage of 49% makes him one of the most successful leaders in Test cricket history. He is widely credited with West Indies’ reinvention as a haven for fast bowlers, following defeat on tour to Australia in 1974-75. Lloyd identified the hostility and pace of Lillee and Thomson as essential components of a successful Test team and set about compiling the attacks that would terrorise batsmen for two decades.

Lloyd’s career bridged the great eras of West Indies cricket; he made his debut under the captaincy of Garry Sobers and, in his final Test, he could count a young Courtney Walsh among his team-mates. In between, Lloyd was captain for all eleven of West Indies’ consecutive Test wins in 1984, a record streak that was only surpassed by Steve Waugh’s all-conquering Australia side between 1999-2001. Lloyd also oversaw the start of West Indies’ run of 29 series without tasting defeat from 1980 to 1995.

In the one-day arena, Lloyd was similarly successful, leading West Indies to World Cup glory in both 1975 – when he became the first man to score a hundred in a World Cup Final – and again in 1979. To this day, he is still one of only four men to have led a side to more than one ICC title.

Alongside his leadership, it should not be forgotten that Lloyd was a fine batsman in his own right. Remarkably consistent in all conditions – Lloyd averaged 46.46 at home and 46.80 away from home – he ended his career with 19 hundreds, the fifth most by a West Indian batsman.

Domestically, Lloyd enjoyed great success at Lancashire where he scored in excess of 1000 County Championship runs in seven of his 16 seasons at Old Trafford. He helped the Red Rose to six one-day tournament wins (four Gillette Cups and two John Player Leagues) between 1969 and 1975 and is still regarded as one of the county’s most successful overseas players of all time.

  • 1944-08-31, Queenstown, Georgetown, Demerara
  • Lancashire, West Indians, Guyana, West Indies XI, Rest of the World XI, West Indies Board President's XI, New Zealand Governor-General's XI, West Indies
  • LHB (No. 4)
  • Batsman (Top order batsman; Occasional 1st change bowler)
  • Right-arm medium pace (1st change)
  • 110
  • 7515
  • 10
  • 46.67
  • 62.20

Career Stats

Batting

Test
1966-1985 110 175 14 7515 242* 46.67 19 39 4
One-day international
1973-1985 87 69 19 1977 102 39.54 1 11 1
First-class
1964-1986 490 730 96 31232 242* 49.26 79 172 34
List A one-day
1969-1986 378 343 72 10915 134* 40.27 12 69 11

Bowling

Test
1966-1985 110 45 1716 622 10 2/13 2/22 62.20 2.17 171.6 0 0 0 209 90 90 0 2 (2ct 0st)
One-day international
1973-1985 87 10 358 210 8 2/4 2/4 26.25 3.51 44.7 0 0 0 87 39 39 0 3 (3ct 0st)
First-class
1964-1986 490 224 9699 4104 114 4/48 4/47 36.00 2.53 85.0 1 0 0 890 377 377 0 4 (4ct 0st)
List A one-day
1969-1986 378 77 2926 1958 71 4/33 4/33 27.57 4.01 41.2 1 0 0 378 146 146 0 3 (3ct 0st)

Competitions Stats

Batting

Regional Tournament 1 1 0 11 11 11.00 - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Australia in West Indies 1 2 0 19 17 9.50 - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Shell Shield 3 5 1 344 194 86.00 - - - 2 0 1 21+ 4+ - - -
West Indies in India and Ceylon 9 14 2 760 138 63.33 - - - 2 4 0 - - - - -
Shell Shield 2 3 0 188 79 62.66 - - - 0 3 0 - - - - -
Other First-Class matches in England 1 2 1 27 27* 27.00 - - - 0 0 1 - - - - -
England (Marylebone Cricket Club) in West Indies 6 11 2 432 118 48.00 623+ 3.55* 89.0* 2 1 1 46+ 3+ 7.86* 447+ 71.7*
Australia in England 1 1 0 1 1 1.00 - - - 0 0 0 0 0 - - -
Other First-Class matches in England 2 4 0 74 37 18.50 - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
West Indies in Australia and New Zealand 19 33 2 1292 205* 41.67 - - - 2 8 1 - - - - -
Player's County League 8 8 1 183 59* 26.14 - - - 0 2 0 - - - - -
West Indies in England 17 22 5 921 201* 54.17 - - - 2 4 1 - - - - -
Gillette Cup 1 1 0 29 29 29.00 - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
County Championship 9 13 1 367 64* 30.58 - - - 0 3 2 - - - - -
New Zealand in England 1 2 0 187 99 93.50 - - - 0 2 0 - - - - -
Shell Shield 4 7 2 334 100* 66.80 - - - 1 2 0 - - - - -
John Player League 14 14 5 521 134* 57.88 - - - 1 2 0 - - - - -
County Championship 16 25 2 1044 163 45.39 - - - 2 6 0 - - - - -
University Match 1 1 0 121 121 121.00 - - - 1 0 0 - - - - -
Gillette Cup 4 4 0 157 53 39.25 - - - 0 1 0 - - - - -
Rest of the World XI in England 5 9 1 400 114* 50.00 - - - 2 1 0 - - - - -
Jamaica in England 1 2 0 38 33 19.00 - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Rest of the World XI in Pakistan 1 2 0 45 29 22.50 - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Shell Shield 3 4 0 176 77 44.00 - - - 0 2 0 - - - - -
India in West Indies 6 12 0 369 64 30.75 - - - 0 4 0 - - - - -
John Player League 16 16 5 374 97* 34.00 - - - 0 3 2 - - - - -
County Championship 22 33 4 1124 217* 38.75 - - - 2 7 2 - - - - -
Gillette Cup 5 5 1 332 109 83.00 - - - 1 2 0 - - - - -
World XI in Australia 7 11 1 370 69 37.00 - - - 0 3 1 - - - - -
Shell Shield 2 3 0 67 60 22.33 - - - 0 1 0 - - - - -
New Zealand in West Indies and Bermuda 3 5 1 303 133 75.75 - - - 2 0 0 - - - - -
Benson and Hedges Cup 5 5 0 136 57 27.20 - - - 0 1 0 - - - - -
Australia in England 2 3 1 56 35 28.00 - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
John Player League 13 13 2 350 89* 31.81 - - - 0 3 0 - - - - -
County Championship 16 23 3 839 181 41.95 - - - 3 2 0 - - - - -
Gillette Cup 4 4 0 272 126 68.00 - - - 1 1 0 - - - - -
Gillette Cup Winners v John Player League Winners 1 1 0 8 8 8.00 - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Shell Shield 4 5 1 198 100* 49.50 - - - 1 0 0 - - - - -
Australia in West Indies 5 10 1 525 178 58.33 - - - 2 2 0 37+ 2+ - - -
Banks Trophy 2 2 0 101 71 50.50 - - - 0 1 0 - - - - -
Benson and Hedges Cup 4 4 0 41 19 10.25 - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
County Championship 5 8 1 209 66* 29.85 - - - 0 2 1 - - - - -
John Player League 3 3 1 161 79* 80.50 - - - 0 1 0 - - - - -
New Zealand in England 1 2 0 62 56 31.00 - - - 0 1 0 - - - - -
West Indies in England 18 25 4 1214 174 57.80 - - - 3 8 1 - - - - -
Rest of the World XI in Pakistan 2 3 0 123 91 41.00 - - - 0 1 0 - - - - -
Shell Shield 3 4 1 385 134 128.33 - - - 2 2 0 - - - - -
England (Marylebone Cricket Club) in West Indies and Bermuda 6 9 1 236 65 29.50 348+ 2.53* 58.0* 0 2 1 16+ 3+ 5.45* 274+ 78.7*
Benson and Hedges Cup 6 6 0 182 73 30.33 - - - 0 2 0 - - - - -
John Player League 15 13 4 388 100* 43.11 - - - 1 2 0 - - - - -
County Championship 19 30 8 1403 178* 63.77 - - - 4 6 2 - - - - -
India in England 1 1 0 55 55 55.00 - - - 0 1 0 - - - - -
Gillette Cup 5 5 0 201 90 40.20 - - - 0 1 1 - - - - -
West Indies in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka 16 22 7 1363 242* 90.86 - - - 3 8 0 93+ 17+ - - -
Shell Shield 3 3 0 191 68 63.66 - - - 0 3 0 - - - - -
Benson and Hedges Cup 5 4 1 79 43 26.33 - - - 0 0 1 - - - - -
County Championship 17 26 4 1390 167* 63.18 - - - 6 6 2 - - - - -
John Player League 12 12 2 512 105* 51.20 - - - 2 3 0 - - - - -
Prudential World Cup 5 3 0 158 102 52.66 153 6.19 51.0 1 1 0 20 2 14.37 78 50.9
Gillette Cup 4 3 1 77 73* 38.50 - - - 0 1 0 8 1 - - -
Australia in England 1 1 0 33 33 33.00 - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
West Indies in Australia 12 20 1 777 149 40.89 641+ 4.39* 58.2* 3 3 2 73+ 2+ 9.98* 430+ 68.2*
India in New Zealand and West Indies 4 6 0 283 102 47.16 - - - 1 2 1 21+ 3+ - - -
West Indies in England 22 29 4 1489 201* 59.56 - - - 3 8 1 - - - - -
Gillette Cup (West Indies) 1 1 0 11 11 11.00 - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Shell Shield 1 1 0 36 36 36.00 - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Pakistan in Australia and West Indies 7 12 3 507 157 56.33 - - - 2 0 1 39+ 11+ - - -
Benson and Hedges Cup 3 3 0 31 31 10.33 - - - 0 0 2 - - - - -
John Player League 4 4 1 105 43* 35.00 - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Schweppes County Championship 5 3 1 164 95 82.00 - - - 0 1 0 - - - - -
Gillette Cup 1 1 0 86 86 86.00 - - - 0 1 0 - - - - -
Australia in West Indies and Bermuda 2 2 0 128 86 64.00 212 3.62 106.0 0 1 0 17 1 8.49 148 69.8
Benson and Hedges Cup 4 4 0 115 60 28.75 - - - 0 2 1 - - - - -
John Player League 14 14 5 451 73* 50.11 - - - 0 4 0 - - - - -
Schweppes County Championship 21 36 6 1116 120 37.20 - - - 4 6 4 - - - - -
Gillette Cup 3 3 1 227 119* 113.50 - - - 1 1 0 - - - - -
Geddes Grant/Harrison Line Trophy 1 1 0 41 41 41.00 - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Benson and Hedges Cup 5 3 1 68 48 34.00 - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Schweppes County Championship 16 22 4 880 104* 48.88 - - - 3 3 0 - - - - -
John Player League 13 11 4 218 40 31.14 - - - 0 0 1 - - - - -
Prudential World Cup 4 3 1 123 73* 61.50 - - - 0 1 0 - - - - -
Gillette Cup 2 2 0 102 76 51.00 - - - 0 1 0 - - - - -
India in England 1 0 0 0 - - - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
West Indies in Australia and New Zealand 12 16 0 432 121 27.00 670+ 2.84* 67.0* 1 1 1 31+ 1+ 4.97* - -
Benson and Hedges World Series Cup 8 5 1 58 34* 14.50 89 3.91 22.2 0 0 1 4 0 4.49 51 57.3
West Indies in England 16 16 2 550 116 39.28 - - - 3 1 1 - - - - -
Schweppes County Championship 2 3 0 134 101 44.66 - - - 1 0 1 - - - - -
John Player League 2 2 0 28 20 14.00 - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
West Indies in Pakistan 11 13 2 298 97 27.09 - - - 0 2 1 - - - - -
Shell Shield 3 4 2 345 144 172.50 - - - 2 0 0 - - - - -
England in West Indies 6 7 1 410 100 68.33 741 3.31 123.5 1 4 0 64 2 8.90 563 75.9
Schweppes County Championship 18 31 2 1324 145 45.65 - - - 1 10 1 - - - - -
Benson and Hedges Cup 2 2 0 129 124 64.50 - - - 1 0 0 - - - - -
John Player League 13 12 2 257 105* 25.70 - - - 1 0 0 - - - - -
Australia in England 1 1 0 58 58 58.00 - - - 0 1 0 - - - - -
NatWest Trophy 4 4 2 135 82* 67.50 - - - 0 1 0 - - - - -
Benson and Hedges World Series Cup 13 13 5 462 80* 57.75 549 5.04 68.6 0 3 0 46 1 8.56 277 50.4
West Indies in Australia 5 8 1 394 77* 56.28 703 3.36 100.4 0 5 0 35 1 5.12 362+ 70.8*
Geddes Grant/Harrison Line Trophy 1 1 0 20 20 20.00 - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Shell Shield 1 2 0 38 38 19.00 - - - 0 0 1 - - - - -
Schweppes County Championship 20 29 2 1135 100 42.03 - - - 1 9 1 - - - - -
Benson and Hedges Cup 6 5 1 209 66 52.25 - - - 0 2 0 - - - - -
John Player League 15 14 2 447 72 37.25 - - - 0 5 0 - - - - -
NatWest Trophy 1 1 0 11 11 11.00 - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Pakistan in England 1 0 0 0 - - - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Shell/Air Florida Cricket Festival 1 1 0 60 60 60.00 - - - 0 1 0 - - - - -
Shell Shield 5 8 1 412 136 58.85 - - - 2 1 0 - - - - -
Geddes Grant/Harrison Line Trophy 3 3 0 56 32 18.66 - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
India in West Indies 8 8 0 418 143 52.25 - - - 2 2 0 34+ 5+ - - -
Benson and Hedges Cup 6 5 2 129 55 43.00 - - - 0 1 0 - - - - -
Schweppes County Championship 11 16 1 447 86 29.80 - - - 0 3 1 - - - - -
John Player Special League 9 8 3 310 81* 62.00 - - - 0 2 0 - - - - -
Prudential World Cup 8 5 1 112 41 28.00 123+ 4.24* 41.0* 0 0 0 - - - - -
NatWest Trophy 1 1 0 6 6 6.00 - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
West Indies in India 13 15 4 732 161* 66.54 711+ 3.58* 142.2* 2 4 0 48+ 4+ 5.62* - -
West Indies in Australia 1 1 1 73 73* - 81 5.40 - 0 1 0 9 0 11.11 - -
Benson and Hedges World Series Cup 10 9 1 245 65 30.62 368 3.99 46.0 0 1 0 16 4 5.43 221 60.0
Australia in West Indies 5 5 1 201 76 50.25 301 4.00 75.2 0 1 0 23 5 9.30 161+ 71.8*
West Indies in England 12 11 2 424 72 47.11 564+ 3.35* 80.5* 0 4 0 32+ 3+ 6.20* 405+ 71.8*
John Player Special League 1 1 0 5 5 5.00 - - - 0 0 0 - 0 - - -
West Indies in Australia 10 16 2 732 114 52.28 1253 3.50 89.5 1 5 1 75 15 7.18 - -
Benson and Hedges World Series Cup 11 8 4 329 89* 82.25 351 5.62 87.7 0 3 0 28 8 10.25 188 53.5
Benson and Hedges World Championship of Cricket 3 2 1 39 25 39.00 65 3.60 65.0 0 0 0 4 0 6.15 37 56.9
John Player Special League 11 11 1 387 108 38.70 - - - 1 1 0 - - - - -
Benson and Hedges Cup 2 2 1 51 43* 51.00 - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
NatWest Trophy 2 2 0 121 91 60.50 - - - 0 1 0 - - - - -
Britannic Assurance County Championship 4 7 1 288 131 48.00 - - - 1 1 0 - - - - -
Benson and Hedges Cup 2 2 0 168 101 84.00 - - - 1 1 0 - - - - -
John Player Special League 16 15 2 501 91* 38.53 - - - 0 4 0 - - - - -
Britannic Assurance County Championship 6 7 0 328 128 46.85 - - - 1 2 0 - - - - -
University Match 1 1 1 19 19* - - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
NatWest Trophy 5 5 1 164 65 41.00 - - - 0 2 1 - - - - -

Bowling

Regional Tournament 1 0 0 0 0 - - - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Australia in West Indies 1 0 0 0 0 - - - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Shell Shield 3 4 66 19 0 - - - 1.72 - 0 0 0 - - - - -
West Indies in India and Ceylon 9 12 780 441 13 3/66 4/97 33.92 3.39 60.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
Shell Shield 2 3 114 61 0 - - - 3.21 - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Other First-Class matches in England 1 2 126 70 3 2/36 3/70 23.33 3.33 42.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
England (Marylebone Cricket Club) in West Indies 6 3 90 34 0 - - - 2.26 - 0 0 0 73 81.1 4 0 4.44
Australia in England 1 0 0 0 0 - - - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Other First-Class matches in England 2 4 216 117 4 2/62 3/101 29.25 3.25 54.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
West Indies in Australia and New Zealand 19 13 504 228 4 2/17 2/24 57.00 2.71 126.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
Player's County League 8 4 120 72 4 3/23 3/23 18.00 3.60 30.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
West Indies in England 17 5 227 106 2 1/3 1/12 53.00 2.80 113.5 0 0 0 - - - - -
Gillette Cup 1 0 0 0 0 - - - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
County Championship 9 8 366 161 4 1/15 1/15 40.25 2.63 91.5 0 0 0 - - - - -
New Zealand in England 1 1 6 0 0 - - - 0.00 - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Shell Shield 4 6 216 86 3 2/30 2/31 28.66 2.38 72.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
John Player League 14 9 372 266 10 3/22 3/22 26.60 4.29 37.2 0 0 0 - - - - -
County Championship 16 23 1404 630 20 4/48 4/47 31.50 2.69 70.2 1 0 0 - - - - -
University Match 1 0 0 0 0 - - - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Gillette Cup 4 4 234 149 6 3/39 3/39 24.83 3.82 39.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
Rest of the World XI in England 5 5 318 120 6 3/34 3/34 20.00 2.26 53.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
Jamaica in England 1 2 216 68 2 2/57 2/68 34.00 1.88 108.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
Rest of the World XI in Pakistan 1 0 0 0 0 - - - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Shell Shield 3 4 300 87 3 1/18 1/18 29.00 1.74 100.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
India in West Indies 6 6 120 78 0 - - - 3.90 - 0 0 0 - - - - -
John Player League 16 5 198 191 8 4/33 4/33 23.87 5.78 24.7 1 0 0 - - - - -
County Championship 22 25 1206 506 15 2/29 4/64 33.73 2.51 80.4 0 0 0 - - - - -
Gillette Cup 5 1 72 32 1 1/32 1/32 32.00 2.66 72.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
World XI in Australia 7 1 24 11 0 - - - 2.75 - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Shell Shield 2 1 6 9 0 - - - 9.00 - 0 0 0 - - - - -
New Zealand in West Indies and Bermuda 3 3 300 96 1 1/10 1/10 96.00 1.92 300.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
Benson and Hedges Cup 5 1 48 14 0 - - - 1.75 - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Australia in England 2 2 132 72 4 2/32 4/72 18.00 3.27 33.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
John Player League 13 2 54 32 1 1/24 1/24 32.00 3.55 54.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
County Championship 16 13 500 204 5 2/22 3/33 40.80 2.44 100.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
Gillette Cup 4 3 128 78 1 1/29 1/29 78.00 3.65 128.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
Gillette Cup Winners v John Player League Winners 1 1 24 24 0 - - - 6.00 - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Shell Shield 4 5 312 88 3 3/34 3/37 29.33 1.69 104.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
Australia in West Indies 5 7 246 103 0 - - - 2.51 - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Banks Trophy 2 2 84 81 2 1/40 1/40 40.50 5.78 42.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
Benson and Hedges Cup 4 0 0 0 0 - - - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
County Championship 5 3 66 43 1 1/32 1/32 43.00 3.90 66.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
John Player League 3 1 30 20 0 - - - 4.00 - 0 0 0 - - - - -
New Zealand in England 1 2 90 33 0 - - - 2.20 - 0 0 0 - - - - -
West Indies in England 18 12 438 205 9 2/25 2/24 22.77 2.80 48.6 0 0 0 - - - - -
Rest of the World XI in Pakistan 2 3 72 53 0 - - - 4.41 - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Shell Shield 3 5 154 46 2 2/18 2/32 23.00 1.79 77.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
England (Marylebone Cricket Club) in West Indies and Bermuda 6 9 348 74 3 2/13 2/22 24.66 1.27 116.0 0 0 0 296+ 88.0* 7 0 2.01
Benson and Hedges Cup 6 6 324 220 8 3/23 3/23 27.50 4.07 40.5 0 0 0 - - - - -
John Player League 15 6 186 118 5 2/17 2/17 23.60 3.80 37.2 0 0 0 - - - - -
County Championship 19 7 138 47 2 2/3 2/3 23.50 2.04 69.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
India in England 1 0 0 0 0 - - - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Gillette Cup 5 0 0 0 0 - - - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
West Indies in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka 16 4 72 46 1 1/10 1/10 46.00 3.83 72.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
Shell Shield 3 1 24 10 0 - - - 2.50 - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Benson and Hedges Cup 5 3 129 68 4 2/40 2/40 17.00 3.16 32.2 0 0 0 - - - - -
County Championship 17 5 132 45 2 2/23 2/23 22.50 2.04 66.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
John Player League 12 8 264 182 5 2/18 2/18 36.40 4.13 52.8 0 0 0 - - - - -
Prudential World Cup 5 4 216 125 3 1/31 1/31 41.66 3.47 72.0 0 0 0 149 68.9 11 0 5.09
Gillette Cup 4 4 121 61 4 2/41 2/41 15.25 3.02 30.2 0 0 0 - - - - -
Australia in England 1 0 0 0 0 - - - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
West Indies in Australia 12 5 184 89 1 1/5 1/5 89.00 2.90 184.0 0 0 0 105+ 77.2* 4+ 1+ 3.67*
India in New Zealand and West Indies 4 3 60 33 0 - - - 3.30 - 0 0 0 - - - - -
West Indies in England 22 11 273 120 5 2/4 2/4 24.00 2.63 54.6 0 0 0 - - - - -
Gillette Cup (West Indies) 1 1 18 14 0 - - - 4.66 - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Shell Shield 1 0 0 0 0 - - - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Pakistan in Australia and West Indies 7 1 36 19 1 1/19 1/19 19.00 3.16 36.0 0 0 0 - - - - -
Benson and Hedges Cup 3 0 0 0 0 - - - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
John Player League 4 0 0 0 0 - - - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Schweppes County Championship 5 0 0 0 0 - - - - - 0 0 0 - - - - -
Gillette Cup 1 0 0 0 0 - - -